itful because of, say, consistent lying or stealing; aggressive; irritable; irresponsible toward his duties; and, most of all, does not show remorse over his behavior. This paper is going to discuss the causes, symptoms and treatment of APD.
What causes APD to occur has always been in focus. Genetics alone cannot answer it because if this was the case, then the offspring of APD sufferers would essentially carry this disorder. But it is not this simple. Research has suggested that APD is a result of a combination of both hereditary and environmental factors. The latter may include risk factors such as child abuse, substance abuse, neglect, deprivation, having faced prejudice, being involved in animal cruelty during childhood, sexual harassment, reading disorder in children, mental torture, and so on. This disorder is more common among males (Swanson, Bland and Newman).
Since there are no clear cut biological causes for APD, we can talk about the risk factors involved in this disease. Amygdala is that part of the brain that deals with the showing of sympathy toward the happy or sad expressions of other people, and also enables one to accept mistakes and learn lessons from them. APD sufferers are said to be having small amygdale with refrains them from understanding or showing regard to other people’s feelings or show remorse. This disease may be passed on genetically but shows itself when it is combined with environment factors as described earlier.
An individual with APD breaks laws, deceives others, lies, steals, is disrespectful and violent, and is not at all concerned about safety or feelings of others. This all leads to violation of other people’s rights. A major symptom is that the APD patient is indifferent to what harm he has caused to others due to his criminal behavior and shows no concern about his hurting others emotionally. He is also apt to commit actions that make him liable for getting arrested. For example, he often gets involved in physical