The Equal Pay Act of 1963 prohibits “discrimination on account of sex in the payment of wages by employers engaged in commerce or in the production of goods for commerce”. In other words, the Equal Pay Act of 1963 was designed to prohibit employers from discriminating against employees on account of gender. In many instances, the development and implementation of such Act was an urgent response to the existing labor conditions in America and the growing dissatisfaction of women with their inferior job position. Since the end of the WWII, wage differentials between men and women plagued the development of labor relations in America and called for major improvements. However, the Equal Pay Act of 1963 was not the first attempt to curb wage disparities based on gender in American economy: during the WWII, the equal pay for women policy was declared and several federal governments proposed that legislation be implemented to reduce and, finally, eliminate wage discrimination based on gender (Fogel, 1984). Actually, Congress took the difficult decision to pass the Equal Pay Act, fearing that the existing wage discrimination would negatively influence the balance of labor supply and demand and would, simultaneously, burden courts with unnecessary paperwork as they are fighting to prove women’s rights for equal pay (Fogel, 1984). In many instances, the Equal Pay Act of 1963 became the turning point in the development of equal labor opportunities in America.
Whether the Equal Pay Act of 1963 has far-reaching implications for HR and produces significant impacts on HR practices is difficult to define. On the one hand, the act sets the stage for developing equal wage opportunities for women and men in similar professions and those, who fulfill similar obligations and tasks. Alternatively, it is clear that the Equal Pay Act of 1963 did not produce the desired effects on the state of labor relations in the U.S.: the change in wage discrimination is meager compared to