has been a number of reports and incidents that have been filed in the past where elders have been victims of crime and which have moved on to create a fear within them. The paper will provide a detailed literature review of the topic and will include statistical data and information that is available that pertain this topic. The literature review that has been discussed is a combination of the literature and theories that have been presented in the past along with the recent statistics that are available on the topic. This will be followed by the research questions and research hypothesis which form an essential part of the research.
With age come a number of issues like the physical vulnerability and also lowered income which in turn leads to a high level of fear of crime. Various researches have been conducted in the past however no single definition has been developed for ‘fear of crime’. There have been a number of debates on the best and most effective way to measure crime. Elchardus, De Groof and Smits (2003), argue that although not much literature is available in terms of the fear of crime, however there are two main patterns that have been followed. These include, a rationalistic view and the other is a symbolic view. Donder, et.al explain, “The rationalistic paradigm interprets fear as a consequence of risk and vulnerability with regard to crime and victimization. The symbolic paradigm interprets fear of crime as a consequence of more general feelings of vulnerability and dissatisfaction that become feelings of being threatened of crime and victimization” (Donder, Verte, & Messelis, 2005). Over the years authors like Baumer and Skogan and Maxfield have divided the factors into three main fields. These include:
It is evident that the above factors play a major role on the fear of crimes and leads to a number of issues among people across the world. The next sub section will deal with the relationship of elders and fear of crime.
A number of