narrowing of the airways due to bronchial smooth muscle contraction as in Asthma; inflammation of the bronchial mucosa and hypertrophy of bronchial glands as happens in Bronchitis.
2. As a result of the tidal volume change, what happens to the flow into each lung and total air flow? Air flow into each lung is also increased resulting in increase in increased total flow into the lungs.
The puncture in the lungs causes the air to flow into the intrapleural cavity of the lungs through the puncture equating the pressure inside with that of the atmosphere. The elasticity (surface tension) of the lung aleoli compresses the aleoli resulting in the collapse. There is minimum airflow to the left lung.
The pressure in the left lung is still the same (zero), the air flow in the left lung ecomes zero. The lungs are only using right lung for respiration. The total air flow is equal to that to the right lung (69.56 ml).
The diaphragm descends and the ribcage elevates (expands) – the increased intrathoracic volume results in decreased intrathoracic pressure compared to the atmospheric pressure. Air flows from the high atmospheric pressure to the low intrathoracic pressure filling the lungs.
Rapid respiration (hyperventilation) results in the expulsion of more CO2 from the lungs. The CO2 is drawn from the bicarbonate buffer system of the blood. The concentration of CO2 in blood decreases resulting in increase in blood pH (alkalosis).
The two values are used to assess the pulmonary function. They tell the clinician about the health of the lungs, any comression or obstruction to tht airflow as well as the extent of the pulmonary dieases (e.g. COPD). They reflect how much the lung function ahs been compromised due to the disease.
Emphysema is a disease characterized by dilation f the alveolar spaces and destruction of the alveolar walls. The reoil function of the lungs is also compromised causing a decrease in expiratory flow. Therefore FEV1 is decreased. The lungs become