s have shown that both low and high self-esteem can cause people to behave aggressively towards others, and is suggestive of the fact that self-esteem can not be defined by a unidimensional scale. Self-esteem can also be measured and the Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale is one of the most commonly used scales for measuring self-esteem. Self-esteem is not a passive process; rather it relates to the attitudes and feelings that promote growth. Self-esteem encompasses many elements such as self-worth, the person’s recognition and approval of oneself and one’s view on how capable one is. Therefore, it can be seen that self-esteem can not be a purely single category; in contrast to that, it entails a conglomeration of elements that constitute and contribute to its heterogeneity.
Carol Craig (2006), from the Center for Confidence and Well-Being, reflects upon the heterogeneity of high self-esteem and concurs with Professor Roy Baumeister’s criticism that self-esteem is a very broad category. As a result, the individuals who can be classed as those with high self-esteem make a very heterogeneous group. According to Craig, people’s perception on what is considered self-esteem varies, and is largely responsible for the heterogeneous nature of high self-esteem. The definition of self-esteem, as proposed by the National Association for Self-Esteem (NASE), helps to articulate and account for the heterogeneity of high self-esteem. The NASE defines self-esteem as the experience that allows individuals to meet life’s challenges and to be worthy of happiness. The NASE distinguishes between accurate and inaccurate self-esteem. People with accurate self-esteem are those who take up responsibility for their actions and do not have to depend upon making a good image of themselves in the eyes of other people. They feel no need to disparage others and their self-esteem does not bring them to be arrogant to others. On the other hand, people with an inaccurate view of self-esteem