5. Buddha: Particularly used as an epithet for Siddhartha Gautama, the founder of Buddhist religion. In general terms, used for such individuals who attain nirvana and therefore free themselves from all material needs and the cycle of life and death and subsequently teach their knowledge to others.
6. Dharma: In Buddhism, this refers to the doctrine and collection of teachings of Buddha that form the natural and uniform laws of conduct and being. In Jainism, it refers to the natural inclination of an object to perform its pre-ordained function. Used for the soul, it refers to the virtues that lead to attaining spiritual greatness.
7. Eightfold Path: This is the fourth of the Four Noble Truths in Buddhism and signifies the path one takes to end suffering. The elements of the Eightfold Path deal with understanding or wisdom of reality, ethics, and concentration to control one’s mind, all culminating in the elimination of greed, hatred and other undesirable attitudes.
8. Four Noble Truths: Fundamental to Buddhist beliefs, the Four Noble Truths were delivered by Buddha in his first sermon to his five companions after his enlightenment, or reaching Bodhi. These truths are existence of suffering such as birth, death or illness, causes of suffering such as desire and pleasure, elimination of suffering such as by renouncing desire and craving, and the path that leads to elimination of suffering.
9. Hinayana: Literary meaning “Lesser Vehicle”, this term was applied to the ancient schools of Buddhism in an uncomplimentary sense by followers of Mahayana (literal meaning “Greater Vehicle”) school of thought. Today some argue that the present Theravadins are close to the Hinayana traditions while others dispute it.
10. Mahayana: The Mahayana school of thought in Buddhism is traced to the beginning of the Common Era when it began as a religious movement in India and later spread to Central and East Asia. Today, the Buddhism practiced in Japan, China,