The costs of falls management by the NHS have been increasing steadily and it is apprehended that by 2015 there will be 120,000 cases of fall each year (NHS report 2005).
Computerized searches of the following data bases were carried out EMBASE, Medline, Cinahal, Cochrane Library Systematic review, BMJ, PubMed, NHS Economic Evaluation, NHS National Library for Health, Health Techonologly Assessment data base, Cochrane register of controlled Trials, Google Scholar, Google, Ovid, Proquest, British nursing index and Reference list from review articles.
Relevant randomised controlled trials, systematic reviews, clinical guidelines, meta analysis in which vitamin D or Vitamin D plus calcium was given and reduction of falls and fractures or prevention of falls and fractures was reported as the primary or secondary outcome.
Male and female, male or female community dwelling older adults>60 who participated in randomized control studies that examined the effectiveness of vitamin D and or vitamin D and calcium in the prevention of falls and fractures
Of the 10 articles that met the inclusion criteria the majority reviewed showed positive results on the supplementation of vitamin D or vitamin D plus calcium regimen reduced the risk of falls among older adults. In a pooled analysis of the 5 randomised control studies included in this study vitamin D therapy of (200-1000 IU) and calcium significantly resulted in the reduction of falls with an odds ratio of 0.814 in a 95% confidence interval of 0.715 – 0.926.
I would like to acknowledge my son Jerome Scott for helping me with the typing of my notes. I would also like to acknowledge the help and support given to me by my colleagues at work whilst undertaking this course.
Falls among the elderly is a major health and social care concern in the United Kingdom. According to the International Osteoporosis Foundation (2009), one in every two women and one in every