Another article concentrates on mood disorders, and how different mood disorders affect the rate of juvenile offending and how individual juveniles can be treated for any disorder they might have, which will presumably help with the rate of juvenile offending if these individuals can be identified and treated properly.
The article “Co-Offending and Patterns of Juvenile Crime”, by Gonzales et. al (2005) looks at juvenile crime from the perspective of co-offending. It specifically noted that offenders who are younger than age 13 are more likely to commit crimes in groups or pairs than their 16-17 year old counterparts, and that 40% of juvenile offenders commit their crimes with others. (Gonzales et al., 2005, p. ii). The article also notes that juveniles who get involved in crime circles are most at risk for committing subsequent crimes. (Gonzales et al., 2005, p. 1). Additionally, non-whites are more likely to offend in groups than whites. (Gonzales et al.¸ 2005, p. 3).
Age makes a difference - offenders younger than 16 were less likely to have committed all their crimes alone, mixing solo with co-offending crimes, while juveniles older than 16 were more likely to offend solo. (Gonzales et al., 2005, p. 6). Interestingly, with young starters – those who have committed a crime before the age of 13 – were not prone to committing violence if they committed their crimes solo, while young starters who commit crimes in groups were considerably more likely to commit violent crimes than late starters (youths who start committing crimes when they are older than 15). (Gonzales et al., 2005, p. 8-9).
The article concluded with a study about whether violence is learned. The study compared two groups – one group was comprised of juveniles who committed a first offense that was non-violent with other offenders who had been violent before the co-offense; the other group was comprised of