According to Snoman, a microphone, casually referred to as mic or mike, is a device that “converts sound into an electrical current that is then transformed into an audio signal at the end of the chain” (152). How well the sound gets captured by the microphone and un-obstructively reproduced and transmitted to the audience, and how well the microphone meets the live or studio requirements of sound, is the main concern. There is no doubt that when you go for a high quality microphone, you are ultimately ensuring excellence of the sound; however, every microphone has its own tonal quality that is different from other microphones. Thus, choosing the right microphone is what requires good sensible knowledge about the microphone technology and some basic tips and tricks of utilizing this technology.
“Microphones are a key factor in achieving high quality recordings and sound reproduction”, says Peterson. The first microphone ever developed consisted of a metal diaphragm connected to a needle which was further connected to a metal foil. When the diaphragm would catch differences in air pressure, it would cause the needle to move which would scratch out specific patterns onto the metal foil. When these scratches were later run by the needle, they would cause the diaphragm to move which reproduced the recorded sound (How Stuff Works). The latest microphone technology, however sophisticated, works on the same principle that is, converting air pressure waves into electrical current.
Whatever the type of the microphone is, all have one thing is common. That is the diaphragm which is actually a thin paper or a thin piece of aluminum or plastic, located in the head of a typical microphone, and vibrates when it catches sound waves produced by differences in air pressure (see Fig. 1). Vibrations in this diaphragm cause vibrations in other modules of the microphone as well