Butler, because of his experience and thirst for improvements in business, used cognitive and rational appeals to employees that were much more driven by emotion at the organisational culture level. Emotional appeals tactics “must involve emotional elements because emotional elements are essential to persuading others and to overcoming resistance to change plans” (Fox and Amichai-Hamburger, 2001, p.85). Butler did not maintain an emotional connection to the pre-existing culture at the organisation and therefore did not include anything but rationalisation in his proposals which caused considerable resistance at multiple business levels. Butler’s first email regarding being a thorn in their side was the first example of noise that was likely considered both arrogance and lack of respect.
In the decoding process, Campbell was also perceiving noise in the inter-office communications that were occurring between Butler about the incorporation of the Interpush software package. Campbell was the senior vice president at the company and likely found Butler’s lack of emotional appeals in his memorandums to be insubordinate and against organisational cultural elements. While Butler was attempting to use rational style, Campbell found this to be a threat to the organisational norm and did not appreciate what Campbell felt to be challenges to his authority and the status quo. Butler’s email pointing out the lack of viability regarding Interpush showed a lack of regard for that authority by essentially shooting down Campbell’s decision-making.
“The trick for turnaround leaders is to show employees precisely how their plans differ from their predecessors” (Garvin and Roberto, 2005, p.106). Butler did not seem to have a solid plan of action, just very straight-forward and rather blunt rational communication style, creating barriers to accepting