Specifically, it was understood that preventive measures could improve the health of the populace. In addition, the Health for all campaign launched by the World Health Organization in the year 1981, had a deep influence on the thinking of European countries (Birt, Gunning-Schepers, Hayes, & Joyce, 1997: 262). This was reflected in their public health policies.
The National Health Service served to provide a uniform and integrated system of medical care to the denizens of the UK. Prior to the formation of this organisation, the health care system had been provided by the combined efforts of divers entities. Some of these providers of health care were voluntary and commercial organisations (Baggott, 1994: 76).
Moreover, the health care system entails considerable expenditure, and this was satisfied to some extent by the philanthropic organisations and the insurance companies. A major role was enacted, in this commendable effort, by the voluntary organisations, which were actively engaged in making community health services available. These organisations worked in tandem with the local authorities, especially in the areas of maternity, child welfare, aftercare, nursing at the district level, and mental and physical impairment (Baggott, 1994: 76).
The economic and societal security of the nation relates to the degree to which individuals or groups are provided with access to, permitted to utilise and the successful results obtained, with respect to a wide range of resources. Some of these resources could connote healthcare, employment, education, housing and finance. These factors have a major bearing on the inequities that exist in healthcare (Ward, Redgrave, & Read, 2006: 10).
In addition, biological and environmental factors, nutrition and the standard of living contribute to health. Thus, health constitutes a function of welfare. It can be surmised that the issues that prove detrimental to health are in general the province of