The prevalence of chronic respiratory diseases is increasingly becoming a concern in the whole world today-affecting people’s breathing and oxygenation ability. In fact, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) has long been identified by the World Health…
revention, there already had been 12, 790 deaths recorded in the United States only in the year 2007 caused by emphysema alone, while 3.8 million adults were diagnosed with the disease in the year 2008 (“Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary,” 2010). As emphysema affects people, this paper aims to increase the readers’ knowledge on what it is, its signs and symptoms, treatments, and other issues surrounding it.
Emphysema is one form of COPD in addition to chronic bronchitis. It is chronic as it is develops as a result of “many years of assault on lung tissues from cigarette smoke or other toxins that pollute the air” (Lewis, 1999, p. 1). The American Thoracic Society and the European Respiratory Society (2004) define it as “the presence of permanent enlargement of the air spaces distal to the terminal bronchioles, accompanied by destruction of their walls and without obvious fibrosis” (p. 8).
Naturally, the lungs have defenses such as macrophages and other free-roving cells that protect it from foreign particles that could impair its natural functions of breathing and oxygenation. However, this protection from the invading particles is only limited (Boyce, 1997, p. 80). Continued smoking or exposure to polluted air, the main risk factors of emphysema, cause the particles to “tend to stay in the lungs and can cause lung damage” by scarring or forming fibrosis resulting to air sac walls being destroyed leading to COPD and other lung diseases (Crowley, 2010, p. 379; Boyce, 1997, pp. 80-81). Some reports providing link between the developments of emphysema after dental treatments have also started to appear (Gamboa-Vidal, Vega-Pizarro, & Almeida-Arriagada, 2007). Nonetheless, further studies to support such claims are still suggested.
In continuation, the function of the substance elastin that allows flexibility in lungs becomes impaired with smoking habits and exposure to air pollutants (Parkinson, 2007, p. 22). The release of substance ...
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To be more specific there is reduced maximal expiratory flow during a forceful expiration. COPD is a chronic disease and progressively reduces airflow over time. An important attribute of this obstruction is that it is not fully reversible. Therefore, the modifications induced by this chronic process have a long-lasting effect.
Chronic diseases of lung can be further classified into obstructive and restrictive disorders. Restrictive lung diseases are characterised by restricted expansion of the lung or chest wall. Obstructive diseases are called obstructive because there is an obstruction to the egress or ingress of air through the airways (Hyatt, Scanlon & Nakamura 2009).
An understanding of the system and its functions is also necessary. This is primary because there are several factors that may affect the properties and functioning of the system. In terms of physiology, the process of respiration is described as an “interchange of gasses between an organism and its environment” (Davies, Moores & Britton, 2003, p.2). This process in human beings is referred to as breathing.
The author states that conditions that fall under COPD include chronic obstructive bronchitis, chronic bronchitis, and emphysema. Patients usually have a combination of these. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is estimated to affect 32 million persons in the United States and is the fourth leading cause of death in this country.
The most common cause of emphysema is cigarette smoking. The cigarette smoke from the cigarette destroys lung tissue, cause inflammation and irritation of the airways. Cigarette smoke affects the immune cells in the lungs which clear mucus and other secretions.
These deformations greatly reduce surface area for gaseous exchange (Green 2007). The chest expands to compensate because of reduced ventilation, the capacity to give out carbon dioxide in damaged.
Hyperventilation cannot compensate for this and hence vasoconstriction ensues leading to hypertension.
He is thin as his appetite is poor and he has become increasingly frailer in the last few months.
One cold November day, Mr. Jones is admitted to your ward. On admission he is very dyspnoic at rest with a respiratory rate of 28 breaths per minute. He has a temperature of 37.8 C.
Several adjacent alveoli will rupture, forming one large air sac that is less able to exchange oxygen and carbon dioxide than a series of smaller sacs.
Often this is because of the harmful chemicals present in cigarette smoke that pass through the walls of the
This essay discusses the respiratory system with reference to COPD.
Lungs are the main place of gas exchange in our body. In the lungs, carbondioxide from the blood is removed and the blood is oxygenated. Air enters the nostrils
While for acute bronchitis, the treatment is directed to symptoms management (Buttaro, Trybulski, Bailey, & Sandberg-Cook, 2013).
I agree with Peng Anderson that symptoms of acute bronchitis and pneumonia differ from
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