as individually interviewed (45 minutes); materialism was measured by placing pictures depicting answers on a collage and then measured again by taking them off; self-esteem was measured with a sorting task adapted from Rosenberg’s 1965 self-esteem scale. The second study was identical to the first except the groups contained 35 subjects and an experimental group was used and given a self-esteem prime at the onset and later the results of the self-esteem measurement were checked against the self esteem prime. Findings revealed that materialism is decreased with an increase of self-esteem and that when self-esteem is heightened in adolescence materialism is negated to the degree that differences in age and materialism vanish. This article is particularly relevant to my study as it provides a methodology that could be used and findings with which to compare.
This article sets out to prove that the relationship between materialism and self-esteem cannot be encapsulated within ‘explicit’ self-esteem, and that ‘implicit’ self-esteem has a vital influence on materialism, and uses three studies to validate their proposal. In the first study implicit and explicit self-esteem was measured in relation to materialism – Rosenberg’s 1965 Self Esteem Scale (for self-esteem) and Greenwals and Farnham’s 2000 Implicit Association Test (IAT) for explicit self-esteem). The second study induced implicit self-esteem by means of subconscious manipulation while measuring explicit self-esteem, and the third study again measured both types of self-esteem but this time using Richins and Dawson’s 1992 materialism scale to measure materialism. Findings show that both explicit and implicit self-esteem jointly impact on materialism and that people with high levels of explicit self-esteem differ in the way they adopt materialism in accordance with their implicit self-esteem. This article is valuable to my research because it adds to the theory of materialism and self-esteem by