Such an approach to language teaching and learning also provides optimum opportunities and avenues for consideration of Gardner’s multiple intelligence theory allowing for involvement and successful learning for all intelligences and learner types.
There are a number of theories in relation to motivation but generally motivation is considered as intrinsic (learning for self) or extrinsic (learning for reward) (Atherton, 2010); among the many theories we find Maslow’s (1943) hierarchical theory, which purports five levels of motivation in terms of needs: physiological, security /safety, social, esteem and self-actualization. McClelland developed a system involving three types of motivational needs: power, affiliation and achievement (Christie, Jordan, Troth & Lawrence, 2007). Making movies provides stimulus for all motivational needs; it provides for extrinsic motivation by rewards pertaining to the final outcomes and assessment, together with peer and teacher praise. Intrinsic motivation is fueled by allowing students to be self-authored by writing their own scripts, which they then rehearse, edit and endorse; such activities provide more excitement and interest in learning and help promote confidence in students.
Intrinsic motivation, inherent to self-determination theory, is influenced by three mental and emotional needs: competence, autonomy and relatedness (Alm, 2006). Movie making classes such as those described above increase competence by providing optimal challenges and effective peer and teacher feedback – both negative and positive – as well as praise. Autonomy is fostered because every student has choices and opportunities for self direction, thus feeding their need for internal control and the freedom to ascertain their own conduct. In terms of relatedness, movie making provides a feeling of security and cooperation among the group and the sense of each caring what the other says,