The paper gives an in-depth analysis of the areas stated above.
Drug abuse is a complex disorder that is characterized by a compulsive need for drugs and alcohol even if it has negative effects. Antecedents can be defined as the factors that encourage an individual to engage in drug abuse. Some individuals use drugs to escape emotional stress or physical pain (NIDA, 2010). Risk of addiction is affected by many aspects including age or stage of development, sociological and biological factors. These factors increase an individual’s vulnerability to drug abuse. The biological factors are dictated upon by the genetic make up of an individual together with the environmental influences. NIDA (2010) stipulates that these factors account for fifty percent of vulnerability among individuals. Additional factors that fall under this category include ethnicity and gender as they may influence the risk for drug use and addiction.
The environment has an impact on an individual since it affects the quality of life and the socioeconomic status (NIDA, 2010). Factors including peer pressure, stress, physical and social abuse and parental involvement affect a persons way of life making them more vulnerable to drug abuse. The environmental and genetic factors interact with developmental stages in a person’s life to affect the level of vulnerability. It is observed that if an individual starts using drugs at an early age, they are likely to advance to higher levels of addiction. Drug abuse in the adolescent years is quite dangerous since important development of the brain takes place at this stage. This affects their self control, decision making and judgment.
Drug abuse affects society in multiple ways, the health and social costs associated with illicit use are staggering. The nation spends approximately $69.9 billion annually on health complications caused by