These included questions about what type of boss the respondent preferred and what factors describe their ideal job.
Findings Among Hofstede’s findings were the conclusion that Asian countries generally have a power-distance, USA and other Western countries are generally individualistic, South American and Asian countries are generally collectivistic, Asian countries are generally highly masculine while Nordic countries are highly feminine.
Research Implications/Limitations Hofstede’s methodology and the conclusions drawn from it have been strongly criticized by a number of other sociologists, such as McSweeney (2002); a common criticism is that Hofstede has inferred broad aspects of national cultures from the situationaly specific replies of a handful of questionnaire responses received from the employees of just one company.
Value Hofstede’s work seems to be deeply flawed with respect to methodology and as such can only be of limited value to the reader. It would probably be wise for a manager not to base their cross cultural communication upon a work based on such flimsy evidence. While it may be valid to classify individuals as being more individualistic or masculine, attributing cultures with such attribute is just a more subtle form of stereotyping. Hofstede’s study has not produced any great insights about people and their culture but serve merely to confirm existing crude racial and cultural stereotypes for example that Asians are servile toward their despotic leaders, that Americans are individualists, that South Americans are very family oriented people, that Nordic societies are highly liberal and progressive societies where the differences in status between men and women have largely been eliminated while Asians oppress their women and keep them chained in their homes.
Design/Methodology/Approach Hall and Hall espouse their theories regarding the differences between