e cause for this narration is Arjuna’s confusion regarding his relationships, bondage to people and the material world, and an effort to liberate himself from these bondages. Hence, the Lord advises Arjuna to follow path of Dharma (righteousness/duty) to achieve liberation from the materialistic bondages.
According to Sankaracharya, this entire philosophy is assembled into 745 versus and based on four main principles, referred to as Purusharthas (Bhagavad-Gita, Gambhirananda, xii) in the Mahabharata; these include Dharma (The principle of righteousness), Artha (Wealth), Kaama (pleasure or desires), and moksha (spiritual freedom or self-realization) (qtd. in Rau, 25). All versus in the Bhagavad-Gita are based on these principles, and teach mankind how to abide by these principles. These teachings also include the effects of following and not following these principles on mankind and its future. The first principle of Dharma (righteousness/duty) guides all actions that man has to perform in order to successfully complete all the duties and eventually attain liberation. This topic is elaborated based on few teachings on Dharma (righteousness/duty), and explained in relation to achievement of self-liberation. For instance, the Lord advises Arjuna to focus on Dharma, which is righteousness of actions and duty.
The Lord says, “Your right is for action alone, never for the results. Do not become the agent of the results of action. May you not have any inclination for inaction.” (Bhagavad-Gita, Gambhirananda, 2:47). Here, the lord explains that a man’s duty is only to perform actions and not expect results. Moreover, man should certainly perform actions and not escape from doing what is required. If man starts thinking about or expecting specific results from actions performed, then he will become a propagator of results desired from the work he does. This expectation could lead him towards inappropriate actions meant to achieve desired results.