The controlled environment is evident in the way the city center became regulated environments and the communities outside of the wall are populated by heretics, foreign exiles and other misfits, thriving in black market trade (Bridge and Watson 2010, 266). Here, one sees how different kinds of people gravitate towards different urban areas.
Today, it is widely accepted that the urban space is a public space. This phenomenon was aptly ushered in by Edward Allan Poe’s literary works in the nineteenth century that wrote a characterization of things and people in urban America as well as the competitive market economy in such a way that present an environment wherein people could act any roles without jeopardizing the personal aspect of their lives.
According to Renza (2002) the increase in commercialization, bureaucratic and industrial innovations contributed much in producing an impersonal public sphere that changed how social privacy is conceived. This is demonstrated in the way how market economy has transformed the urban landscape. Renza explained:
Transportation changes, in particular railroad expansion after 1830, and telegraph linkages between cities (begun around 1844) reduced people’s perceived sense of private versus public spaces… building public thruways, bridges, wharfs and even parks involved the expropriation of preexisting rights, usages, and expectations… requiring the techniques of the well-regulated societies (60).
The highways in modern urban setting became the equivalent of the medieval “walls” previously cited, functioning as boundaries that separate the rich from the poor or a race from another race. As a consequence of this development, the suggestion of new ethos emerged – specifically to deal with the values and social anxieties that the phenomenon entailed. This ethos was supposedly a