During 1970s quite a few environmental laws and regulations were framed with an effort to control ocean dumping. President Nixon addressed to Congress on banning of unauthorized and harmful waste dumping on the ocean. Subsequently Environmental Protection Agency passed a bill to the Congress which resulted in formation of Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act 1972. It established a permit system for ocean dumping with a view to end all oceans dumping by 1975. EPA along with the Army Corps of Engineers began to issue permit for dumping of waste in ocean.
On October 15, 1973, the EPA issued its final regulations and criteria’s for ocean dumping which were strict and highly restrictive. It aimed at terminating all oceans’ dumping regardless of the permit issued to the applicant. It led to a highly protective approach to ocean dumping. But the scenario changed in 1980s when New York City authorities filed a suit in a federal district court against EPA on the rejection of its application on dumping waste in the ocean. The verdict was delivered in favor of city and the power of EPA to terminate ocean dumping was limited. As a consequence of the verdict EPA adopted a more flexible rules regarding ocean dumping and viewed ocean as an authorized disposal option of dumping wastes.
3) The change in the administration with the President ship of Ronald Reagan led EPA to move away from confronting intergovernmental relations and to comply with federal stance towards municipal sludge dumping.
2) The passing of bill by EPA to Congress which resulted in formation of MPRS Act 1972 also changed the ocean dumping policy. A more strict dumping system was followed and permit system was started for dumping of wastes.
Ocean dumping should not be allowed liberally. Strict rules regarding dumping of wastes should be adopted by the government. There is already enough pollution in the water world due to various oil tragedies like the Gulf Oil