They note that simulation and virtual interaction largely address the “communication challenges.” On the other hand, the research study performed by Salend, Duhaney, and Montgomery (2002) emphasizes the importance and impact of cultural and linguistic backgrounds of the persons involved in and/or during the communication process. In contrast to Salend et al. (2002), the study and findings of Meirovich, Galante, and Kanat-Maymon (2006) reveal that perception of the sender towards the receiver, and vice-versa, affects the act of communication. Here, the literary review -- concerning the nature, and ways of studying the peculiar character, of communication process -- is essentially premised on the vitality of correct communication act within the organization/group in particular and the society in general.
On the other hand of the scale, Manchester United (MU) defender Rio Ferdinand “forgot” to participate in the random and routine drug test activity slated on 23rd of September, 2003. The British football star was moving house at the time of drug testing. As a result, the Football Association (FA) made a drastic decision to leave out Ferdinand from the England squad bound to Turkey for the 2004 European Championship. The FA’s verdict is grounded on the misconduct of the football athlete: not showing up in the scheduled drug testing. On the other hand, the Professional Footballers’ Association (PFA) and the MU team deciphered the FA’s decision as an insinuation that Ferdinand is guilty of being a drug dependent. By and large, the football star’s “forgot” reasoning and the eventual verdict reached by the FA spawned a massive controversy both for Ferdinand in particular and the British football game in general. Ferdinand’s case is a battle essentially dealing with communication processes and the barriers inherent in an ineffective communication. This essay examines the elements and varieties of