A recommended test will be either a CT scan or an MRI of the brain preferably together with an echocardiogram. The possible diagnosis is a transient ischemic attack or TIA due to smoking. If there is blockage, then a balloon angioplasty or coronary artery bypass surgery is needed.
Diabetes causes hyperglycemia which is elevated blood sugar in which an excessive amount of glucose circulates in the blood plasma. Hyperglycemia can cause neuropathy which also includes collateral damage from microvascular injuries as well as macrovascular injuries due to repeated trauma or insults (either vascular or biochemical in nature) and an increased capillary hydrostatic pressure (Joslin & Khan, 2005, p. 1135). Hugos prognosis is five years without claudication when his own vein is used but the fem-pop bypass will remain open in about 50% of the cases five years after surgery if an artificial graft is used. Considering Hugo is now 65 years old, possible complications include leg swelling, bleeding and heart attack or stroke as he is a high-risk case. The risk of death is estimated at 1% to 3% of all surgery cases.
1. Collateral flow – refers to the alternative blood supply flow to the myocardium that has been jeopardized by ischemia (sometimes spelled as ischaemia). This is the process in which small and normally closed blood vessels (arteries) open up to serve as alternate routes if there is coronary heart disease, myocardial ischemia or a stroke (www.americanheart.org).
2. The difference – an ischemia is just a temporary stoppage in the supply of the needed oxygen to the heart for a very brief period of time while an infarction occurs when the heart muscles are deprived of the oxygen for too long that the muscles eventually die. There are other cases of ischemia and infarction occurring other than the heart such as what happens in the intestines due to a hernia, adhesions, arterial