Ethos is another type of appeal that presents the good character of the speaker as proof of the point being made. “My faith in the Constitution is whole…and I am not going to sit here and be an idle spectator to the diminution, subversion, destruction of the Constitution…” Jordan puts herself forth as an example of a good American citizen.
Mythos is an appeal founded on cultural values. She stresses the contrast between “a president grown tyrannical” versus the “preservation of the independence of the executive” as one of the time-honored distinctions made by the democratic American.
The first is the proposition of fact, which deals with alleged facts which are debatable or inconclusive. An example of this is the allegation that: “The police power of stop and search is used by police officers to discriminate against members of the black race.”
The second is the proposition of value, which treats on the morality, rightness, merit or worth of an idea or an action. This is illustrated by the statement: “Abortion is the taking of human life and is thus a crime.”
The third is the proposition of policy, which encourages an audience to agree with an idea or to take an action. It goes beyond making a categorical statement and espouses the adoption of a policy or the pursuit of a course of action. An example of this type of proposition is: “Millionaires who lost their jobs in the recent recession should not be allowed to claim welfare.”
There are six steps to building an argument. The first step is to develop a proposition. The proposition is that central idea that you would wish to convince your audience of, and it is best stated in a clear, declarative statement.
Second, lay out a variety of compelling and coherent evidence. The evidence must be directly supportive of the proposition, not only tangentially related to it. Also, the evidence must have a clear connection in the mind of the audience,