gies that are producing high yields of protein can be used as the key for the large scale production and the strategies involved in the production can be monitored for the efficient production of the recombinant proteins.
The majority of the therapeutic proteins are produced using the mammalian cell culture system and by using the microbial systems. The mammalian cell culture systems usage for the large scale production involves very huge investments and hence the use of microbial systems is more preferred. The most common bacteria that are used for these production strategies are the Escherichia coli. E.coli was the first heterologous host to be used for the production of recombinant human DNA based material. (Gellissen 2005).
Insulin is a hormone secreted by the beta cells of the islets of Langerhans of pancreas. It is essential for oxidation and utilization of blood sugar and maintenance of proper blood sugar level. In the healthy individuals insulin is normally secreted in the body continuously to maintain the glucose concentration as normal in the body. Insulin secretion usually increases after a meal in the body and the peak concentration is achieved within an hour. It also falls down to the normal level with in two hours. The normal plasma concentration of insulin is approximately 10 ^ -9 mol / l. the half life of insulin is only a few minutes. At the normal concentration, insulin is present as a mixture of monomer, dimer, tetramer, and zinc-insulin hexamer. These solutions of insulin are found to have a long lasting action and hence the insulin is produced as solutions only. Inadequate secretion of insulin leads to hyperglycemia (higher blood sugar level). This condition is said to be diabetics. Insulin reduces the blood sugar level and promotes glycogen metabolism in liver and muscles. It also reduces the breakdown of cellular proteins. Further it increases the resistance towards infectious diseases. The treatment of diabetics by treating insulin is