Recovery from the disease is also highly possible.
The United States National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) categorized anthrax as a “Category A” high priority disease because of its potentials as a biological weapon or for bioterrorism (Dyer, 2010, p. 1). The bacterial pathogens that can cause anthrax are Bacillus anthracis, Francislla tularensis, and Yersinia pestis (Dyer et al., 2010). However, the study of Fasanella et al. (2010, p. 1) identified only “the encapsulated, large rod, and spore-forming Bacillus anthracis” as the cause of the disease for both animals and man. According to Fontanella et al. (2010, p. 1), “human anthrax usually results from a cutaneous infection caused from the handling of infected animal products or, in rare cases, by ingesting or inhaling spores from contaminated animal products.”
From more than 250,000 screens performed in 2010, Dyer et al. (2010) identified 3,073 human-B anthracis, 1,383 human-F. tularensis, and 4,059 human-Y. pestis proteins, all of which are uncharacterized. According to Fasanella et al. (2010, p. 1), animal anthrax “primarily affects herbivore ruminants, such as cattle, sheep, and goats, which are the most susceptible animal hosts.” Animals usually get the disease after ingestion of soil-borne anthrax sore (Fasanella et al., 2010, p. 1). The study of Fasanella et al. (2010) confirmed that house flies or insects could be mechanical vectors for the spread of anthrax. Unweaponized, anthrax infections in humans are rare and “it occurs primarily as a professional disease in farmers and veterinarians through direct exposure to spores from infected animals or animal products such as hides or wool” (Cao et al., 2009).
Without bioterrorism, the risk factors for Anthrax outbreaks include “gleysolic or organic soils, old anthrax grave sites, soil disruptions or flooding, hot, dry temperatures, and heavy