balization has flattened the competitive field in commerce, making it viable for companies in countries with emerging markets to compete with the companies based in industrial countries. And it in this context that Friedman presents his proposition that the world is flat. “The global competitive playing field was being leveled. The world was being flattened.” (Friedman, 2006, pg.8).
He divides the process of globalization in three phases and also cites the forces influencing globalization in each phase. The first phase, Globalization 1.0 was the period when multinational companies were responsible for the rising levels of global integration. Globalization 2.0 is the second phase, during which the countries and their respective governments played a significant role in globalization. The present phase is Globalization3.0; in this phase the convergence of fiber-optic micro cable and the computer is influencing globalization. Friedman explains the factors such as flatteners, convergence of these flatteners which shaped the progress of globalization. In the end, Friedman offers his suggestions which can aid U.S. to face the challenges posed by globalization.
Globalization is shaped by the type of connectivity that is prevalent among the people in various countries and the ability of the people to utilize that connectivity. And it is the development of this connectivity that will aid a country in its competition in the global market. The level of technology that is available in a country is more important than its geography. “Friedman explains the importance of the development of work flow platforms, software that made it possible for all kinds of computer applications to connect and work together, which is what allowed seamless cooperation by people working anywhere.” (Zakaria, 2005). The geography of the country and the development of the technology needed for globalization are two different factors. The geographical conditions in a country may not be