Being introduced as forensic investigation method in criminal cases in the early 1990s, Short Tandem Repeats (STRs) represent a class of microsatellite sequences seen throughout the human genome and in other eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms (Fan & Chu, 2007). STRs are…
Because of their varying repeat lengths, STRs are characterized with large number of alleles, which in turn make them being highly variable between populations (Lee et al, 1994). In addition, these microsatellite sequences account approximately for 3 percent of the human genome and occur on average every 10,000 nucleotides (Collins et al, 2003). Finally, among other types of biological material, STRs are characterized with consistency and stability, which practically means that any cell contains the very same profile of SRTs. From the forensic perspective, it means that regardless of type of biological material obtained in the crime scene, appropriate STR profile proving source attribution can be conducted using any type of cell without compromising the result.
From the practical perspective, STR profile constitutes simply a panel of numerical designations of each STR allele repeat number based on their electrophoretic sizing information. The electrophoretic mobility of DNA is inversely proportional to the length of the fragment; the longer allele with more repeats migrates slower than the shorter alleles containing fewer repeats. If a snapshot (electropherogram) is taken at a time point when two alleles of different lengths are electrophoretically migrating through a gel, the shorter allele will appear further from the origin than the longer allele. When looking at multiple alleles simultaneously, the STR electropherogram pattern (profile) of an individual is different from that of another individual whose alleles may be longer or shorter and hence assigned with different allele numbers. The variation in STR allele sizes results in distinctive DNA profiles with a uniqueness of 1 in a trillion using the 13 core STR loci in the FBI’s national database known as COmbined DNA Index System (CODIS). These 13 loci were chosen for their unique characteristics, such as number of alleles and repeat sequence, present in each one of them. Their adoption in the ...
Cite this document
(“Short Tandem Repeat (STR) Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words”, n.d.)
Retrieved from https://studentshare.net/miscellaneous/411286-short-tandem-repeat-str
(Short Tandem Repeat (STR) Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 Words)
“Short Tandem Repeat (STR) Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 Words”, n.d. https://studentshare.net/miscellaneous/411286-short-tandem-repeat-str.
This business recognises when trends in the environment call for divestment of low-performing business units in order to capitalize on further strategies to expand the brand names of its many products available in its product line. This essay describes the main trends in this market, the methodology of competition for Pernod Ricard, an examination of growth strategies (a critical lens) and a reasonable forecast for future acceleration based on knowledge gleaned through secondary research on the company.
(Committee on DNA Forensic Science, 1996). DNA identification is one of the most valuable instruments for the contemporary criminologists. This type of analysis provides a very high probability of tracing the criminal in case at least some genetic material that belongs to him is present on the crime scene.
Before the above title boggles the reader, let us quickly define the terminologies involved. CODIS is an acronym for Combined DNA Index System which initiated in 1990 in the United States originally as software to enable various states for crime identification based on Biological DNA material.
The classical examples are the analysis of finger prints; Blood stain investigations, identification of explosives, recorded sound and handwriting etc. But in recent past biological technique have taken center stage in identification of criminals over all other techniques and that is based on DNA composition of individual.
s very little sample at crime site, mixing up of evidences, and many cases completely burn victims etc DNA based criminal identification and crime detection has revolutionized the forensic investigation due to its huge potential in different kind of crime and highly reliable
in the environment call for divestment of low-performing business units in order to capitalize on further strategies to expand the brand names of its many products available in its product line. This essay describes the main trends in this market, the methodology of competition
mount of information from a DNA sample while limiting its consumption in instances where there is a limited availability (for example in the case of evidence collected from a crime scene). Multiplexing of STR (Short Tandem Repeats) and polymorphic loci through fluorescent
as also been used to exonerate wrongly accused individuals, and several of them were in death row (Dnaforensics.com, 2015).The innocent project states that over three hundred people have been exonerated as a result of DNA evidence. As of the year 2014, over ten million
8 Pages(2000 words)Essay
GOT A TRICKY QUESTION? RECEIVE AN ANSWER FROM STUDENTS LIKE YOU!
Let us find you another Essay on topic Short Tandem Repeat (STR) for FREE!