The highly inflammable nature of the petroleum product both in the crude variety and in its refined form makes fire protection a critical aspect of safety in petroleum refineries. Important design considerations need to be followed while laying out the location of different…
PI 2001 & IP 19 along with a lot of other international codes provide specific parameters that are to be followed in preventing the occurrence of fires and other calamities in a refinery area. Fuel, oxygen which is present in the atmosphere and heat mixed in the right proportions are the necessary ingredients that are required to begin and sustain a fire. (API 2001, 2005, p.3) Cutting off the supply of any one parameter shall assist in controlling the fire.
Vapor pressure, Flash point, Flame point & boiling point are some of the reference parameters that are used in defining a hazard posed by a particular flammable liquid. Petroleum products which have a certain degree of volatility always releases small amount of vapors at ambient temperature. This release increase’s as the temperature rises. Vapor pressure is thus defined as the pressure exerted by the vapor of the substance when both the vapor and the substance are in equilibrium. Flash point is the lowest temperature at which a liquid gives off enough vapor to produce a flammable mixture. These vapors will ignite but will not continue to burn. At a
Based on the flash point, fuels are classified into flammable liquids and combustible liquids. Flammable liquids have flash points below 100º F and vapor pressure not exceeding 40 psia while Combustible liquids have a flash point at or above 100º F. (API 2001, 2005, p.3) Further flammable liquids are subdivided into 3 classes (in decreasing hazard) based on flash point and
Class C: Fires involving electrical equipment are treated in this category. Class C fires are essentially a manifestation of Class A and Class B fires. Once the electric circuitry is de-energized and the source of electric rupture contained these fires are treated as Class A or Class B fires since these fires would then essentially progress via the combustible solid or liquid source lying in the vicinity of the fire.
For fires to begin and propagate Oxygen, Heat and the flammable fuel may ...
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Beattie (60) explains that most occurrences of industrial fires have been noted to happen when systems are impaired or out of use. Hence facilities that detect and protect fires always have to be installed so that in case of any occurrence, the fire will be easily contained.
There are many other definitions of fire, including that it is one of the four elements in alchemist. Different disciplines have different definition of fire. It thus follows that there are numerous paradigms of fire, including the physical, cultural, and biological.
e to injury and deaths -- notably including the deaths of children, as well as those of the firefighters who die while on or caused by their duty (NCFPC, n.d.). In line with this, authorities all over the world have continued to search for knowledge on how to prevent fire and its spread in case of disasters.
The current system often must fail catastrophically before a new system is put in place. This can be seen clearly when looking into the history of building safety codes and their relation to fire safety. Many of these disasters could have had a much lower death toll if only fire safety codes and building regulations had been enacted before, instead of after, these fires.
The advent of the mobile payment system has encouraged these merchants. This mode of payment will boost the payment processing hence enhancing quick and prompt transacting in business transactions. Mobile payment processing requires compliance to the ‘payment card industry data security standards’.
These systems are mainly used for offshore production of oil and gas. These safety systems are intended to provide a platform that is safe by all means. The petroleum industry makes use of these documents that enable them to easily
that whereas the United States, the leading country in terms of industrial development, has significantly benefited in the increase of technological use, and its industrialization has also been the leading cause of fatal fire disasters that cost them not only millions of
Due to fire, black smoke enveloped the industrial area of Houston. Students and other people were asked to remain inside so that toxic fumes in the atmosphere. It took almost 10 hours to extinguish the
Usually, the devices for manual fire alarm activation in a building are situated conveniently near exits and where they can be easily identified and operated. Such devices for manual activation include fire alarm boxes, manual pull stations, call points or
Here, the project management team must determine how the raw materials are delivered, storage and their transfer to the batch or continuous process areas of the facility. The next issues are to understand satisfactorily the conditions.
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