The beginning of Islamic Architecture takes place with the construction of the Great Mosque at Cordoba in the Iberian Peninsula. Muslims as well as the Christians consider it a wonder of the medieval ages. The construction of great mosque of Cordoba initiated in between “784 and 786 at the site of a Christian Visigothic Church” 2. In specific, Abd ar-Rahman acquired the church, and subsequently, his grandchildren modified it over two centuries to transform it into a religious entity, starting in 784. The mosque itself was built in four phases and is observed as a trademark of sacred Islamic architecture. Ferdinand III king of Castile took over Cordoba in 12363 and sanctioned the Great Mosque as the cathedral of city, Mezquita, and used it with negligible changes for the next three centuries4.
In 929, when Abd al-Rahman III5 confirmed himself caliph, and the Spanish Umayyads attained the peak of their supremacy. The caliph built the fortress capital of Madinah al-Zahra about thirteen kilometers Northwest of Cordoba, with its focus to impress the world and exhibit its massive military. He made it his empires managerial and legislative headquarters. The construction in Medina al-Zahra proceeded speedily, particularly since Abd al-Rahman III put in one third of the state revenues in its progression. Finally, he brought in the largest and most grand secular venture of his period, which stayed matchless irrespective of the numerous cities founded until its end. As the caliphate fell in the 11th century, the city then was sacked and smoldered. The new Minister of Caliph Hisham II, Vizir-ul-Mansur6 shifted his concentration towards the east of Cordoba and deserted the city during his reign. Later, the Berber troops destroyed this palace-city in 10107.
The Great Mosque of Cordoba is most illustrious for its gigantic arches, with approximately eight hundred fifty six pillars of natural stones. These legendary