Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is considered as a serious developmental disorder affecting children especially from the early months of life and the disorder often results in low intelligence. The term autism has acquired the solemn attention of researchers and psychologists…
Even though researchers have become aware of factors such as genetic abnormality, metabolic disorders, and viral agents which promote autism, the actual cause of autism remains unknown. Autism, regarded as a major developmental disorder that has adverse impact on the development of a child, is now seen as an issue that has certain specific biological, mental or social impacts. Studies reveal that parents and doctors find it essential to provide their children nutritional supplements because of disorder in gastrointestinal system. Many parents have the misconception that ASD is a primary brain disorder and a psychiatric condition. Even though Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is generally regarded as a developmental disorder, it has some biological, mental and social impacts that cause adverse effects in the developmental process of a child.
Unlike previous conceptions, autism is now viewed as a biological disorder due to organic than psychosomatic factors. Uncharacteristic biology and chemistry in human brain interrupt smooth functioning of human brain and its organs. Genetic factors or biological reasons are significant in the formation of autism among the children. It is a brain based developmental problem that promotes difficulty in communication, cognition and social interaction. The problem is that parents seek various treatments and practice various medicines without proper awareness. This causes various health problems such as nutritional insufficiencies, allergy problems, intestinal overgrowth and immunity crisis because of the use of various drugs and medicines. Stephanie Marohn argues that many suffer from “weakened immunity or autoimmune problems” (Marohn, 2002). Studies have identified the fact that Autism mainly affects many parts of the brain. Defective functioning of brain and its organs causes poor immune system. Medicinal reactions and allergies cause for frequent flu and it creates various problems to ear, eyes and nose among children ...
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According to the paper the abbreviation above stands for Treatment and Education of Autistic and Related Communication Handicapped Children. The program is aimed at making children adapt to the environment by organizing it using visual cues and pictures. The major point of departure of TEACCH form ABA is that the former does not expect the child to develop typically with the treatment.
Over the years, the DSM has been revised while some of its sections completely rewritten as new empiric evidence gathered through research continually challenge its existing definitions as well as provide potentially more efficient ways of management (Leventhal, 2012).
INTRODUCTION Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a congenital condition occurring in children more frequently than diabetes, spina bifida, or Down syndrome. The defining characteristics of ASD include 1) labored social interaction, 2) impaired use of words and gestures in communication, and 3) inconsistent patterns of behavior interests, and activities.
The five classifications of autism include autistic disorder, asperger syndrome, Rett syndrome, childhood disintegrative disorder and pervasive developmental disorder (Volkmar, 2012). ASD, a developmental disorder, affects millions of children in all parts of the world, with the condition noticeable at the age of three years, where there are noticeable signs in the area of interacting socially, impaired and late speech development and slow learning ability.
There are various theories like Piaget’s stages of cognitive development, Erickson’s psychosocial stages, and Bronfenbrenner’s ecological model, which can be used to understand the mental and social advancement and progression of children. Theories of Early Childhood Cognitive Development 1.
The characteristic features of the disorder are impairments especially in the social interactions, verbal communication skills as well as general interests in some activities. This could be dangerous especially when not recognized at the early stages as a child may develop adverse complications especially when it is already too late.
The physical growth goes along side but mental development has considerable significance and virtue. The environment prevalent around becomes an essential part of his childhood memories. Psychologists and researchers believe that learning stage of humans start from day one.
The author states that the condition is a great manifestation of the brain’s inability to develop effectively thereby quantifying the condition as mental. The condition thus affects the development of patients a feature that complicates both its determination in a patient and the successive treatment.
Further recommendations require the clinician to maintain an active role in long term treatment planning and family support as well as support of the individual and clinicians specifically making enquiries about the use of alternative/complementary treatments, and be prepared to discuss their risk and potential benefits.
Research indicates that some children experience complete mental disability while others don’t. Autism spectrum disorders are also known as pervasive developmental disorders and include following diseases (A Parents Guide to Autism Spectrum Disorder, 2011):
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