d higher level of unemployment created as a result of the financial crisis also led to the worsening of relations between employees and the employers. The relations between the trade unions and the employers became relatively more difficult in the wake of the new challenges faced by the firms due to financial crisis.
Strikes by the staff of British Airways, rail strike and the possible strike by the fire fighters indicates that the things may not be going very well and there is a greater need for managing the employee relations in more effective manner. This also depends upon what approaches managers take while managing the industrial relations within their organizations. Unitary and pluralistic approaches therefore both define and parameterize the way managers and other stakeholders actually manage the relationships between the different groups of stakeholders including the employees.
It has been argued that the frame of references adapted by the managers actually condition the response of the managers towards different situations faced. Frame of reference therefore becomes critical because it is based on this that individuals make decisions which are than subsequently applied under organizational environment.
Unitary frame of reference indicates that there is one goal in organizations towards which every person in the organization works. This approach also advocates that there is only sense of authority and conflict is not viewed favorably. Mostly the managers consider themselves and other fellow managers to follow this perspective and expect that their subordinates also follow and internalize this philosophy.( Leat, 2007).
Pluralistic frame of reference however, sees the organization as a collection of different groups with either the same or even conflicting interests with each other. It is because of this reason that it is expected that the different stakeholders under this frame of reference often formulate the strategic alliances and these strategic