The complications can be due to preterm birth, low birth weight, and intrauterine growth restriction. Particularly the complications develop because of the environment that a mother faces before or after the birth. These can lead to physical or psychological impairments among the children.
There are multiple factors that can lead to these complications like smoking, drinking, maternal depression, poverty, family quarrels, parent’s mental illness or lack of formal education. The child who encounters these types of problems at home develops serious learning and behavior problems, mental illness or has a stressful future life (Werner, 1989).
Nonetheless, the children who have experienced birth complications can lead a successful live. It all depends on the type of environment in which they are brought up. A stable environment facilitates a child in dealing with the stress he faces, and develops skills equally like all other children. In a research conducted by Emmy Werner in 1989, one third out of the total number of impaired children grow into a competent adult. After further study and observation, Werner found the factors that assist these stressed children in dealing with their stress and other risks of life. The main factor that contributes to these children to bear stress was their strong bond with the caretaker, which could be any member of the family or any appointed baby sitter. Establishing this bond makes it easier for the children to share their thoughts and daily life problems with the caretaker, resulting in taking decisions on their own and making life easy for them. Grandparents can play a pivotal role in the upbringing of a child. The protective aspect in the families, whether out of family circle, or within the children themselves who face complications, enables them to resist stress.
The other factor included is that these children have taken