The generic term used for risk management techniques is the disaster control plan or DCP. Out of these early attempts to help lessen the adverse effects of a disaster led to forming of the so-called incident command system (ICS). This system was originally used by cities as a fire-management tool because it was found to be effective. This effectiveness was based on a proven organizational structure that used descriptive terminology that is both comprehensive and powerful but still easy to understand by most people (Woodworth, 2010, p. 1). However, the ICS was expanded and integrated into the national incident management system (NIMS). Although more comprehensive, the NIMS is still largely centered on operationalizing of ICS at the time a disaster strikes. The big purpose is to avoid chaos and confusion that can lead to more serious consequences during and after a disaster. Another key part of the NIMS is the emergency operations center (EOC) that takes care of details such as putting a logistics center, emergency medical services team (EMS) or the triage area (Hogan & Burstein, 2007, p. 147). The EOC will be tasked with activating the emergency operations plan (EOP).
With today’s terrorist threats hanging over the horizon, the idea of the NIMS is to give local emergency personnel the training and knowledge to treat emerging or potential disasters an all-hazards context. The idea is to treat each disaster as a worst-case scenario so that local responding emergency personnel are not caught flat-footed when arriving at the scene. Taken in another perspective, it is better to be fully prepared for the worst than arrive unprepared for the sheer scale or magnitude of a disaster if one underestimates the scope of the disaster. Even a minor disaster at first glance should be treated as a potential major disaster if mishandled as things can easily escalate and maybe even get out of hand.
The lead agency