takeholder include the Government; UNICEF; National Health Committee; NGOs; school teachers; local leaders; national television; media; village sanitation committees; private sector; and households. Responsibilities for stakeholders have been clearly defined in project plans.
Impoverished communities around the world suffer from unique problems. Singleton (2003) described origins of problems including lack of access to safe water; lack of facilities for health care; lack of access to educational opportunities; shortage of nutrition; lack of employment opportunities; inadequate transport facilities; and limited or expensive power supplies. Impoverished communities are caused by lack of income because of underemployment; inadequate housing, sanitation, and water supply; limited educational opportunities; or inadequate or expensive transport. Reasons for failure of poverty alleviation strategies include lack of planning for operation and maintenance; limited attention to the development of ownership by the local communities; political interference and intervention; allocation of funds without poverty alleviation strategy; and corruption.
Myanmar suffered the deaths of 30000 children in 1997 from diarrhoea. The sanitation coverage was 39 percent for the population, and personal and domestic hygiene was poor. The World Health Report published in 2000 ranked Myanmar 190th among 191 countries. Attempts were made to improve sanitation in the 1990s by promoting community participation. A strategy was the provision of free latrine plans to families, but the project had to be phased out as it did not succeed in achieving community support and became costly. The government realized that its role was to facilitate and stimulate local communities for recognizing and meeting their own needs (Singleton, 2003).
The aim of this case study is to highlight the role project governance in the development of engineering solutions for communal sanitation in Myanmar. Aspects of