ble in the sense that it does not label any theories wrong, but treats all assumptions and viewpoints, even the most controversial ones, as possible and justified.
The notion of philosophy and the search for wisdom are closely associated with ethical behaviors and metaphysics. That the value of ethics is metaphysical cannot be denied: ethical statements and prescriptions are equally absolute, constraining, and metaphorical, i.e., they are difficult to explain by factual language. In my opinion, the metaphysics of ethics assigns individuals with the responsibility to follow the principal ethical commands without trying to understand the philosophic utility of these ethical standards. Simply stated, the philosophy of life is in complying with the society’s ethical demands, without looking too far into their distant meanings and effects. Here, I cannot but agree to Wittgenstein in that ethics is a road which everyone must go or be ashamed for not going, but the meaning of such a road can hardly be explained, as long as it lies beyond the realm of explicable things (7).
Whether we have more knowledge than the ancients is a complex issue. We live at the time of the rapid technological and knowledge advancement and sometimes come to view ourselves as the people, who know (or can know) everything about anything. However, there are still things which we cannot explain. More importantly, most of our knowledge is rooted in the facts, theories, and opinions produced by our predecessors. Objectively, there are things which were available to the ancients but are unavailable to us, and there are things of which previous generations were unaware. The point is in being able to value, preserve, enrich, and use the knowledge of the ancients to build a more systematic vision of the world – the goal any philosopher seeks to pursue.
In this context of ethics, metaphysics, and philosophy, the question is in what place God occupies and whether God must be moral and happy. Some