During the Civil Rights Movement of the 1960’s, the U.S. government enacted affirmative action measures in an effort to eradicate institutional racial discrimination. Beginning with an executive order issued by President John F. Kennedy in 1961, these government programs were authorized to equalize racial inequality and prevent further injustices. The Civil Rights Act of 1964 “prohibits employment discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex and national origin” (Title VII, 1964) Subsequently, an Executive Order (11246) originating from the Johnson administration in 1965, mandated affirmative action for all federally funded programs. It also moved affirmative action enforcement responsibilities to the Labor Department. (“Executive Order,” 1965). These governmental efforts to effectively outlaw institutionalized racism was a reaction necessitated by the enormous outpouring of public pressure of all races and gender during the 1950’s and 60’s. Society as a whole as well as many groups and individuals have benefited from these programs including women, those who suffer disabilities and the working class, but their principal emphasis has focused on racial discrimination.
Affirmative action was a legislative reaction initiated by the public’s outcry to racism and remains a necessary method to a balance the scales today as racism is still a prevalent oppressive force within all areas of society. The 1991 documentary, ‘True Colors,’ by Diane Sawyer filmed two friends, one black and one white, similarly educated men of the same age as they dealt with a variety of circumstances that occur in ordinary daily living. The men, acting as if they were new in town, separately tried to rent the same apartment, applied for the same job and shopped. The documentary recorded the troubling disparity in the way the two similar men were treated in identical situations. In department stores, ...
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(Affirmative Action Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 Words - 3)
“Affirmative Action Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 Words - 3”, n.d. https://studentshare.net/miscellaneous/434775-affirmative-action.
Affirmative action has been developed in order to ensure equal status on the basis of race, creed, color and national origin (Cohen, and Sterba 12). According to Beckwith and Jones (11) “Affirmative action policies take a large variety of forms, ranging from making recruiting efforts in ethnic communities to mandating a specific number of positions be set aside for minorities.” Mangum defines affirmative action as a multipurpose term.
Affirmative Action The principle of affirmative action Affirmative action (hereforth referred to as “AA”) is defined as “a set of practices undertaken by employers, university admission offices, and government agencies to go beyond nondiscrimination, with the goal of actively improving the economic status of minorities and women with regard to employment, education and business ownership and growth” (Holzer & Neumark, 469).
Affirmative action is a policy in the United States which emphasizes upon the need for provision of equal opportunities of employment which the law requires the federal subcontractors and contractors to adopt. The affirmative action is implemented with an intention to eradicate discrimination on the basis of such factors as origin, race, ethnicity, sex and color against the candidates applying for a position.
According to the research conducted by Sharma (2005) and Acton (2000), affirmative action can simply be referred to as the advocating of equality in society. Affirmative action can also looked at as positive movements aimed at increasing the representing number of women and minorities in areas of education, business and employment which they have been excluded for a long time (Sowell, 2004; Garrett, 2004).
Affirmative Action. Affirmative action is still needed in 2012. There are discrepancies between the white males versus women and nonwhite males in terms of equal rights to education and higher paying jobs. The research delves into the hiring of minorities and accepting minorities in school programs.
in which people are marginalized bringing together the people for equal opportunities, where it started with attempting to eliminate discrimination and integrating people into a society that saw them as outcasts and denied them opportunities that were availed to them