The Roman empire in the ancient world built the highly sophisticated waterway system known as large aqueducts that carried water for hundreds of miles, introduced advanced sewer systems, invented durable cement, and constructed concrete structures. Other human problems related to improved communication, transportation, information transmission, mechanization, medicine, etc have been solved with the help of technology in the last two centuries through various inventions (Gupta, 2007).
Technological innovations are related to philosophy’s aspects of values and ethics. Thus, planned and controlled technologies though regulated by laws are the worst offenders in creating environmental degradation. “A close survey of global problems indicates that neither science nor technology alone has the answer” (Gupta, 2007, p.383) to solve some major human problems. An example is that technology cannot create a species which has become extinct due to the decline in biodiversity. The main crises include destructive organizational, political and technological patterns; the breakdown in the human environment, the depletion of non-renewable resources such as fossil fuel, and other problems. Therefore, human behavior has to be improved, and relevant courts and controls should be applied to maintain checks and balances on the development of new technology and in its implementation (Chorafas, 2011).
Social engineering is the organizing and “channelling of environmental and social forces to create a high probability that effective social action will occur” (Podgorecki, Alexander & Shields, 1996, p.1). It denotes the development of processes in which human beings serve as raw materials. In the twentieth century, grand plans of social engineering projects have proved to be costly and failures, as seen in the utopian experiments using violent measures to break the will of the people. On a smaller scale are interventions for