Conditioned emotional responses as defined by Coon and Mitterer (2010) are learned emotional reactions to previously neutral stimuli (p. 232). An example of this are phobias, which psychologists believe began as conditioned emotional responses.
During the time of Watson and Rayner (1920) who conducted the study entitled, Conditioned Emotional Reactions, different assumptions have been proposed in concerning the likelihood of conditioning diverse types of emotional response; however, exact experimental evidence in aid of such view is missing. It was recommended previously that in infancy the fundamental emotional reaction models are not many, comprising so far as perceived of fear, rage and love, then there must be several uncomplicated ways by means of which the range of stimuli which can bring forth these emotions and their compounds are highly amplified, or else, intricacy in adult response could not be accounted for (Watson & Rayner, 1920). Watson and Rayner (1920) though without adequate experimental evidence, enhanced the perspective that this variety was augmented by means of trained impulse aspects. It was recommended that the first home life of the child endows a laboratory setting for creating conditioned emotional responses. With this premise, Watson and Rayner (1920) put the whole matter into an experimental test.
Watson and Rayner (1920) used the subject named Albert who was reared almost from birth in a hospital environment; his mother was a wet nurse in the Harriet Lane Home for Invalid Children. Alberts life was typical, he was fit from birth and one of the best developed youngsters ever brought to the hospital, weighing twenty-one pounds at nine months of age. He was impassive and inexpressive. His stability was one of the major reasons for utilizing him as a subject in their test as emphasized by Watson and Rayner (1920) for they felt that they could cause him reasonably little harm in performing such experiments. Watson ...
Cite this document
(“Little Albert and Classical Conditioning Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words”, n.d.)
Retrieved from https://studentshare.net/miscellaneous/469367-little-albert-and-classical-conditioning
(Little Albert and Classical Conditioning Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 Words)
“Little Albert and Classical Conditioning Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 Words”, n.d. https://studentshare.net/miscellaneous/469367-little-albert-and-classical-conditioning.
Little Albert was a child that he conditioned to have a fear of with white objects. At first, they exposed Little Albert to things such as a white mouse (US) and allowed him to interact with the (UR) object. Then they started making loud noises (CS) whenever Little Albert would come into contact with the white mouse.
Classical conditioning is one of the famous features of behavioral learning hypothesis. Ivan Pavlov discovered classical conditioning. As a learning process, Classical conditioning happens through relations between an ecological stimulus and a physically occurring motivation.
Associative learning happens when people or animals connect stimuli with responses (Lilienfeld et al., 2010, p. 182). These responses to stimuli can be removed, however, through the process of extinction. Extinction demonstrates that learned responses that are not reinforced right away will slowly lose its impact on animal/human behaviors (Lilienfeld et al., 2010, p.
This paper attempts to provide an association between classical conditioning and drug tolerance. It has been concluded that conditional learning is linked with the drug tolerance and it explains the reason behind the increased cases of overdose after abstinence period or when it is administered in an unfamiliar environment.
He provided the dogs with food, and monitored their salivary response and then he began ringing a bell just before presenting the food. He noticed that the dogs would begin to salivate on seeing his assistant carrying food pans even before he presented the
t three period were marked with serious cases of crime against humanity unleashed by individuals whose main aim is to propagate tribal enmity for their own benefit. Consequently, citizens of the said country living in big towns and even those living afar off are conditioned to
irst inferred that learning resulted from an individuals interactions with the environment whereas; the other assumption credited the environment for influencing behaviors. In addition, behaviorists discredited the use of internal mental states such as thoughts, feelings as a
The introduction then goes ahead and describes the study process and the outcomes. The paper also describes three types of stimuli in human beings which are: natural stimuli; unconditioned stimuli, and conditioned stimuli. The paper
She likes the ringtone only because it is based on a song that is her fiancé’s favorite. Personally, she has no liking or disliking neither for the song nor for its ringtone. The ringtone playing on her phone does not invoke any strong
3 Pages(750 words)Essay
GOT A TRICKY QUESTION? RECEIVE AN ANSWER FROM STUDENTS LIKE YOU!
Let us find you another Essay on topic Little Albert and Classical Conditioning for FREE!