Other studies resist wide spread and implementation of the technology because of concerns that GMO foods can cross biological boundaries and cause harm to humans and the environment. Besides safety and environmental aspects, the topic draws a lot of socio-economic concerns, public knowledge and attitude, confidence in decision-making institutions and ethical concerns that shape consumer perceptions of the risks posed by GM foods. Public opinion is a force that should have been taken into account if gene engineering needed to be successful in developing new product especially the controversial GM foods. The issue of GM food is made complex by the various interested groups, the different perceptions of risk and reward as well as the conflicting perceptions regarding the benefits and costs associated with the controversial products. The answers behind the controversy are complicated ranging from ethical to religious to even potential health and safety impacts posed by the technology in GM foods.
Supporters of the genetic modification in foods highlight the premise that the technology is capable of meeting not only the basic food needs of the society but also achieving nutritional, environmental and economic benefits to the consumers. Sceptics of GM foods consider this to an unnecessary interference with nature that poses unknown and potentially catastrophic consequences. According to Hossain et al (2003), regardless of the potential of GM foods, they have received mixed regulatory and public acceptance within the US and other parts of the world. Moreover, regardless of the prevailing technological challenges, consumer acceptance of GM foods remains an essential factor that determines the future of the technology. This stems from the scarcity of reliable information regarding consumer awareness and perception concerning the significant subject. Based on a sample population of students, Hossain et al (2003) found the students were reluctant to consume food with GM