These rocks are overlain by younger Oligocene rocks to recent carbonates. There are also othersedimentary rocks that are part and parcel of the geology of Puerto Rico.
Typically, the Northern Oligocene to the rather recent carbonates is composed of Most of the caverns and karst topography. The geology of Puerto Rico has made it very mountainous from the way the island was formed. There are also seventeen lakes in the island which are all manmade and fifty rivers (Otis, 2005). The island’s formation, topography, hydrography and climate make up Puerto Rico’s current geologic composition harmoniously; showcasing the natural beauty of the island. This paper seeks to analyze the geology of Puerto Rico from concepts of its formation, topography, hydrography and climate.
Puerto Rico is strategically placed between the Caribbean and North American plates, just at the boundary. As a result, there is deformation that is occurring to the island ion the present day due to the interactional stress between these plates. The results of these seismic events include geological hazards such as earthquakes, tsunamis and landslides. Looking into the structure of Puerto Rico, the Jurassic rocks are the oldest rocks (Meyerhoff, 1933). These rocks are mainly found at Sierra Bermeja in the southwest part of the island and are about 185 million years old. They are believed to have originated from the Pacific Ocean realm and constitute the bulk of the oceanic crust.
In the Jurassic period, the main body mass (the Pangaea super continent) was split into two. This led to the formation of two land masses. On the North was Laurasia and to the south was Gondwana. As a result, the continental climate was transformed from dry to humid due to the presence of more cost lines. This was the first process of the formation of Puerto Rico. The land masses were pushed from the ocean overlying on top of each other thus forming hilly and mountainous landscape. The