Cocaine use is higher in the adults aged between 18 and 25 years compared to other age groups, with cocaine use in the past month being reported by 1.5 percent young adults (NIDA, 2010). Also, cocaine use is more common in men as compared to women.
The annual Monitoring and Future survey in 2009 surveyed drug use and teen attitudes, reporting a considerable reduction in the 30-day powder cocaine use prevalence among children in the 8th, 10th, and 12th grades than they were in the late 1990s (NIDA, 2010).
Repeated use of cocaine leads to addiction as well as other health consequences. NSDUH reported in 2008 that as many as 1.4 million Americans complied with the criteria set by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders for abuse of cocaine or dependence on it within the previous year (NIDA, 2010). In addition to that, the 2008 Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN) noted the involvement of cocaine in 482,188 of up to 2 million cases of drug abuse or misuse in the emergency departments (NIDA, 2010). This can be interpreted as one in four cases of drug abuse or misuse involving cocaine reported in the emergency department visits.
Cocaine causes high addiction. It is almost impossible for an individual using cocaine to be able to control or predict the extent to which they will use it. The risk of relapse upon addiction is very high even if the individual experiences long periods of abstinence from the drug. Memory of exposure to or experience of cocaine during the periods of abstinence can trigger immense craving for the drug.
Withdrawal symptoms of cocaine include but are not limited to restless behavior, agitation, fatigue, depression, generalized malaise, slowing of activity, increased appetite, unpleasant dreams and nausea (NIH, 2014). The individual can experience depression and craving for several months after cessation of heavy use of