ITU-T G.651 and ITU-T G.652 (standard SMF) are the two compositional standards (Alwayn, 2004). Standards that relate to performance govern transmitters and receivers and include; Optical Transport Network the, Synchronous Digital Hierarchy, etc.
Other standards are developed for specific niches. For instance, fiber optics in satellite communication begs other standards to adhere to. The deposition of dopants can be done in three standard ways: inside, outside and axial vapor deposition (Held, 1999). Moreover, advances in the use fiber optic systems has created a demand for standards that enable interoperability between telephone companies and interexchange carriers. Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) in Europe and Synchronous Optical Network (SONET) in North America (Held, 1999) are data transportation vehicle capable of supporting data rates in gigabyte range.
There is not just one way of implementing fiber optic technology. For instance, the most common way for this implementation is a high-speed fiber optic local area network (LAN). Before implementing this technology, a feasibility study is made. If a company needs to go into an area where there are no pre-existing cable networks then implementation is much easier. Fiber optic technology is very different from DSL services, therefore, implementing a new technology in a blank area is much easier. However, if there are copper wires installed for transmitting data then cost justifications, minimizing disruptions for the use of SML and the cost for connecting to NPS backbone LAN, need to be made (Ee, 2004). The demand for high-speed internet usually drives the service providers to move to a better technology.
The greatest hurdle preventing the widespread implementation of fiber optics is its cost. Implementing new fiber optic network is a troublesome task especially when old infrastructures like DSL and cable are already serving the customers