In the paper “The Relation Between the Embouchure and Flute Playing” the author analyzes the principles of the flute work. As per the theories, the air stream should be split in exactly half by the strike edge of the embouchure hole present on the flute. …
Practical experiments are inevitable in order to determine the best possible sound producing angle. The flute is quite a small instrument and hence it does not require much air to play. Other wind instruments like woodwinds and brass make their sounds in a way that a certain back pressure is exerted by the instruments and the embouchures. The flute does not exert any kind of back pressure itself. The lips of flutists have to take the responsibility of providing this back pressure and hence a requirement of a large amount of air. The flutist blows a quick jet of air through the embouchure hole. The pressure inside the mouth is above atmospheric level, usually 1 kPa. The source of power to the instrument is the work done to accelerate the air in this jet. The flutist provides the power required to produce a sound. Further, this sound needs an oscillating motion. The air jet present in the flute along with the resonances in the air in the instrument helps in producing an oscillatory component of the flow. Energy is radiated as sound out of the end and any open holes of flute as soon as the air present in the flute starts vibrating. A large amount of energy is lost in the friction with the internal parts of the wall of flute. The column of air present in the flute vibrates more easily at some particular frequencies, known as resonating frequencies. The resonance determines the playing frequency and hence, the pitch. So, the player chooses the desired resonances by selecting a suitable combination of keys. ...
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