A general definition of music therapy encompassing its therapeutic use as well as target was provided by Wigram (2000, p. 29):
Music therapy is the use of music in clinical, educational and social situations to treat clients or patients with medical, educational, social or psychological needs.
Music therapy has been formally defined to include three aspects of therapy; music, interpersonal relationship between the patient and the therapist, and finally the health outcomes of the use of music as a therapeutic procedure. Thus music therapy can be defined as “the prescribed use (by a qualified music therapist) of music, and the relationship that develops through shared musical experiences to assist or motivate a person to achieve non-musical goals” (Brunk, 2004, p. 7).
Munro and Mount (1978, p. 1029) have defined music therapy as “controlled use of music and its influence on the human being to aid in physiological, psychological and emotional integration during treatment of an illness or disability”
Aspects of music therapy
The three critical aspects determining the efficacy of music therapy include the type of music, the nature of relationship between the therapist and the client, and finally the health outcome of the therapy (Brunk, 2004, p. 11).
Once trust has been established the therapist can use music to present share difficult experiences and tasks can be designed accordingly. The client then explores and establishes relationship through music. C. Achieving Goals Improvement in communication and language skills, communication skills and emotional modulation are the targeted goals that are to be achieved by music therapy. History History provides abundant evidences along with myths and lore for the use of music as a therapeutic tool (Gouk, 2000, p. 5). However research connecting modern scientific basis of modern therapeutic uses of music with the traditionally practiced music therapy are insufficient. Medical science in its early days of development, i.e. since the time of Hippocrates, was skeptical about the principle and practice of music therapy. Music is definitely not a part of the two prominent British works covering the history of medicine and psychiatry (Horden, 2000, p. 28). Healing powers of music are described in De Institutione Musica (circa AD 600) a book which has been quoted repeatedly in medial music literature. According to this the music-medicine link is based on four basic assumptions (Gouk, 2000, 85; Horden, 2000, p. 26): The harmonic vibrations of music have been interpreted as microcosmic reflections of vibrations and as proportions present in macrocosmos in the (Neo)Platonic Theory. The medical theory based on the interbalance of the four bodily fluids or humours considers the origin of disease as a consequence of the disturbance of this balance. Musical vibrations have the power to bring about the balance of the humours. The ethos doctrine is based on the premises