Every failure has a cost attached to it. The principal reliability-linked factors of cost through the useful life of an item being Design & Development, Production and Maintenance & Repair, evaluated in the backdrop of installation and environmental parameters like temperature, humidity, vibration, corrosion by chemical attack etc. and the degradation caused by the combination of a few or all of them. A higher reliability invariably envisages higher production, design and development costs, whereas, appropriately factored-in maintenance and repair costs can lead to higher levels of reliability. In the context of non-sustainability of the current energy practices, dawning of global awareness that renewable energy sources are the only way out, has led to a sensible emphasis on solar energy as one of the (wind energy being the other) most abundant and attractive renewable energy source, easily available for harnessing. In the scenario of rapidly depleting natural energy sources like coal, oil and natural gas, the solar option has presented itself as an alternative which is being vigorously pursued for viability for commercial exploitation in the longer run. A system that uses solar cells and solar panels in a mechanical system that collects, transforms DC current into AC current and stores the electricity for later use is often called Active Solar Energy. The deeper “Bath Tub” assumes the shape of a “Shallow Pan” in the case of static equipments predominantly deployed for renewable energy applications, as far as reliability is concerned; the failure zones in this case are therefore not pronounced. Listed below are a few indicative amongst the many, though not exhaustive, but popular applications: Solar air conditioning Solar ovens for heating of foodstuffs Agricultural irrigation Hydrogen generation by the use of photo-electro-chemical cells The following applications however stand out amongst the most popular commercial applications: 1. Generation of electricity in Solar updraft towers Solar towers use an array of reflectors termed ‘heliostats’, approximately 120 sq. meters in size. Located on top of 150 meters tall towers within receptacles, these are directed towards the sun for direct absorption of the heat of the concentrated solar radiation. Operating temperatures close to 1000oC can be attained depending upon the choice of the heat transfer fluid (HTF) which in turn also decides the design of the receptacle, lined with the very best quality insulation material for optimum performance. High reliability is foreseen at the design stage itself. Likely failure points are identified in advance using the FMECA (Failure Mode Criticality and Effect Analysis) technique and appropriate specification de-rating vis-a-vis the liberal vendor rating is resorted to, for ensuring realistic unhindered performance. Finite element thermal simulation and sensitivity analysis to comply with the thermal specifications also forms part of the internal product review. External third party assessment provides inputs for MTBF (Mean Time between Failures) calculation for useful lifetime assessment, maintainability and manufacturing as part of an iterative design process for consistent improvement of product designs and individual components. Selection of the most appropriate materials of construction of all the components of solar renewable energy systems forms the last
Reliability and Maintenance of Solar renewable systems Reliability being the ability of an item to perform its intended function under pre-defined conditions for a stated period of time, it has an inherent inverse relationship with ‘failures’; lesser the failures, higher the reliability and vice versa; higher the failures, higher the maintenance being the logical corollary…
The renowned “Bath Tub Curve” concept highlighting the failure zones which precede and succeed the useful lifetime of any product, when depicted on a time scale as shown below, can be deemed to be a measure of its performance, and is more relevant for rotating equipments.
‘Reliability’ in this sense is the chance of failure of PV system or its parts over time which includes numerous materials, components and subcomponents. It is in this context that each of these parts and components are subjected to frequent failures of instruments which can result in ineffective PV module reliability (Muneer, “Large-Scale Solar PV Investment Planning Studies”).
The energy that comes from sources which are continually replenished such as geothermal heat, sunlight, tides, wind, water and waves is widely known as renewable energy. We can also define renewable energy to be the energy that comes from the natural and persistent flow of energy found in the immediate environment.
The following paper will address the viability of alternative energy. Addressed within the paper will be the positives aspects of changing to currently produced alternative energy sources as well as the negatives attached. The end goal being the implementation of human dependence on oil through means that preserve both our way of life as well as our current standard of care, in a way that ensures a cleaner earth.
Electric appliances, ovens, stoves, etc consume energy. In order to generate the energy many methods have been utilized. The selection of a method and the priority of selecting one method of energy generation over the other require careful research according to the locating of the region, economic condition of the region or the power generation company and the environmental conditions.
This research essay will make an earnest attempt to elucidate the wind and hydropower generation of manoeuvres of both Australian and Bangladesh government, to minimise the global warming and of that USA, China, Brazil, Russia and Canadian governments in general by giving unique attention to various empirical studies and eminent authors’ views.
Other sources of energy were preferred to wind because of its unreliability and the high capital costs associated. Presently, oil reserves are diminishing thus the various moves by countries across the world to explore
Fossil fuels are the most popular energy source even though other sources of energy are available in this world. One of the most difficult problems associated with fossil fuels is its non-renewable nature. It should be noted that energy sources are
The core objective of this report is signifying the importance of solar energy and how it has been proven to be one of the most sources of energy production in recent times. The document analyzes the history and development
is done by using proprietary thin film semiconductor technology, which is achieved through the usage of cadmium telluride in conversion of sunlight to electricity. This is a technology that has enabled the company to lower its production cost as compared to the traditional
20 pages (5000 words)Research Paper
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