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Assignment 2

Surface water i.e. rivers lakes, ground water are the main sources of fresh water for human consumption such as household, irrigation, industrial purposes etc. Some of the freshwater sources are renewable and others are non-renewable. Renewable resources can refresh themselves naturally with the passage of time but some human activities are changing them into non renewable resources. Using ground water at a rate exceeding its recharging can result in climate change like less rainfall, extensive flooding etc. This is what is happening in the Edward ground water reservoir of Central Texas. North Africa, China, India all these countries are facing this problem of ground water depletion and this condition will become more severe in future. Surface water (rivers) is crucial for agriculture as well as for industries. Rainfall and melting of glaciers are the sources of water in these rivers. Deforestation by the humans is disturbing the rain system, and resulting in less rainfall so less amount of water is added to the rivers. Construction of dams etc results in less water reaching delta regions of rivers. It affects the fish species living in the wetland areas. Around 80% of all the wetlands present in Europe have been destroyed. In large parts of the world, rivers are considered as dumping sites for wastewater. According to a report by Food and Agriculture Organization, 450 cubic Km of wastewater is discharging in to lakes and rivers everywhere. Human intervention has thus become a threat to fresh water. Fossil Fuel Oil, Gas and Coal are the three most important fossil fuels. Out of these Oil is more commonly in use and therefore considered more important due to its particular characteristics that give it a privilege over other fuels. Industries, agriculture, all economic sectors are in one way or the other using oil. Different derivatives of crude oil such as plastics, wax have their importance as well. It is rightly said that we are living in the Age of Oil Oil is important for the economic development so all countries try to find their own oil. According to estimation more than 50% of the oil that was available on this planet has already been produced and it is called Peak in Oil Production. Now geologists are of the view that we have oil reservoirs that can supply oil with the current annual consumption level for 40 more years only. That is an alarming situation, so scientists are trying to develop techniques to cope up with this situation. Some people are trying to use coal in liquid or solid form and natural gas as a substitute of oil. Environmentalists are not happy about it as coal produces a lot of pollution. OPEC (Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries) was created by oil producing countries to develop ways to stabilize the oil prices in the international market and to ensure a steady income to the member countries. In my view, instead of emphasizing more on the use of fossil fuel we must develop renewable sources as a substitute of these fossil fuels. These renewable sources are environment friendly. We can harness sunlight, wind or tides for the extraction of energy. Instead of thermal power plants we must rely more on the hydro electric power plants. Climate Change Industrialization and modern lifestyle has resulted in an increased amount of Carbon dioxide, methane and other greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. These gases trap the infrared energy with in the earth’ ...Show more

Summary

Water Cycle Water is a vital resource that is important for the survival of life on this planet. Water is under the process of continuous movement between atmosphere and lithosphere through processes like evaporation, condensation, infiltration, surface run off, melting and precipitation…
Author : hlind
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