Snowman defines it in passing as “an art form that aspires to combine all the others”1 and goes on to chart the history of opera as a pastime of the elite which started in the Renaissance, reached its peak in the nineteenth century and began to decline in the twentieth century. This paper looks at the nature and purpose of opera in the twentieth century with specific reference to the unfinished masterpiece Moses and Aron which was written by classical composer Arnold Schoenberg (1874-1951) between 1930 and 1932. In the mediaeval period most people encountered formal music principally in religious settings but after the great turbulence of the Reformation, there came a time of gradual extension of musical performance into the salons of high society. Wealthy patrons of the Renaissance commissioned music to be written for special occasions such as weddings and coronations. In France the ballet form emerged, and in Italy genres such as the pastorale became popular: “The attraction of the pastorale consisted therefore, not in the plot but in the scenes and moods, the sensuous charm of the language, and the delicately voluptuous imagery, at which the Italian Renaissance poets excelled.”...
tieth century new genres, and notably also technology such as gramophones and radio, extended the range of genres for musical production available and brought musical performances to still further sectors of the population. Schoenberg’s compositions were, however, unreservedly directed at the music-loving elites, and his choice of theme for his own modern opera harks back to the religious heritage of the Old Testament. Snowdon describes the changes that opera had undergone in the intervening centuries as a negative process: “opera has become at best a museum of art, a kind of old-fashioned religion re-enacted inside great temples before a dwindling audience of the devout.” 3 This description fits the more intellectual style of opera and it can be contrasted with what Snowman calls the “dumbing down of a once great art form to the point where any appeal it has beyond the narrow world of the cognoscenti is necessarily derived from the imposition of hype, shock and bogus sex appeal.”4 Schoenberg’s Moses and Aron is musically difficult, both to perform and to listen to, and it deals with ancient themes using heavy moral and religious overtones. It hardly seems likely to attract a wide audience, but for Schoenberg, the composition of both text and musical score seem to have meaning beyond the immediate context, serving to some extent as a life’s work, or a summing up of the most important elements in his own view of the world that he wants to leave for posterity. Schoenberg had a complex religious background, being born a Jew in Roman Catholic Austria, and then converting to Protestant Christianity before returning to his Jewish roots in later life.5 This return was provoked by the rising anti-Semitism that was gaining ground in central Europe in the early
The term “opera” derives from the Italian word for “work” and has come to mean a large scale and extravagant creation, or a work of art which involves music, high drama and expensive costumes, delivered in sumptuous surroundings to a well-educated and wealthy audience…
The Covenants that God made with Noah, Abraham, Moses and David
At its simplest definition, a covenant is a formal agreement between two entities. The parties involved are usually of equal stature, with the agreement being mutually beneficial. Aside from this, covenant also entails each party to bear the burden of certain responsibilities in order to realize the said mutual benefits.
Beijing Opera Culture relates to the specific way of life of a given group of people. It relates to the language of communication, beliefs, norms, social activities, arts & sciences, spirituality, social interaction, and line of thought. Also known as, Peking opera, Beijing Opera represents the finest combination of literature, music, mime, dance, martial arts, fine arts, in China.
This may go on for days and even months.
Some people just find themselves looking forward to going home or finding a television set when the "time" comes for their favourite soap opera. It seems that a day is incomplete without them being able to look and get the latest about the lives of their favourite characters.
Mendelssohn immensely influenced and greatly contributed to the German Enlightenment period and the formation of modern Jewish ideology. Mendelssohn's notion of enlightenment has been a constant subject of analysis and debate which in turn spawned countless scholarly works with regards the subject.
His parents had kept him in secret until he is three months old, however, when his parents can keep him hidden no longer they decided to set him adrift to the Nile River in a small craft of bulrushes coated in pitch. According to the Bible, Moses' sister Miriam watched the progress of the tiny boat until it reached a place where Pharaoh's daughter Thermuthis was bathing with her handmaidens.
The desire to move away to the "outworn conventions of old and dying way of life (Lebrecht 15)" and the determination to move away from the old tradition of compositional styles made way for the remarkable composers to draw their inspirations and musical ideas more and more from their own personal and internal psychological experiences (Lebrecht 15).The years between 1900-1914 are one of most significant in the arts history. It produces a series of musical developments abandoning the realist tradition, i.e. the common practice period1 that had dominated the Western tradition since the Renaissance (Lebrecht 15).
Mendelssohn immensely influenced and greatly contributed to the German Enlightenment period and the formation of modern Jewish ideology. Mendelssohn’s notion of enlightenment has been a constant subject of
So much so that these two works of art tend to configure a modern definition of love and sexual identity.
The modern notions of love and sexual identity tend to rebel against the social and natural constraints, which
The author states that voice was the ruler of any orchestra in the Opera’s during the early 19th century. Polyphonic writings started to lose their grip during this time. Voice clarity and simple language expressing direct views started to matter. Rossini, Donizetti, and Bellini were the three stars of the arias.
The approach is used to produce character’s psychological insights, reinforce dramatic action and to suggest extra musical ideas to the listeners. The extra musical ideas suggested are usually relevant to the dramatic event presented (Citron, 2010). The
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