The sketchbook of Beethoven shows that some musical materials that were used in the symphony were written in 1811 (Nicholas 231). The symphony also came from other Beethoven’s pieces, while completion of the work on its own right shows some sense for future sketches for the symphony. The choral fantasy is basically a movement of piano concerto, which brings the vocal soloists and a chorus piano near the end of climax. In this symphony, theme is first sung by vocal forces and is played by instruments, thus making it highly reminiscent of the ninth symphony’s corresponding theme. Going further back, the theme of the choral fantasy’s earlier version has its origins from the song “Gegenliebe” which means, “Returned Love”, for high voice and piano that dates back to 1795.
Scherzo’s theme was composed from fugue, which was written in 1815. The symphony’s vocal introduction part caused Beethoven to encounter very many difficulties. His friend, Anton Schindler said that his work on the fourth movement made Beethoven struggle than never before. The aim was finding out the most appropriate way of Schiller ode’s introduction. One day, he was able to get a version with the words of singing the immortal Schiller’s ode. Though he was very happy to get it, he did not retain it, but kept on writing other versions until he got its final form. This final form had the words, “O freude, nicht diese Tone, which translates into “not these sounds, oh dear friends”.
Beethoven augmented each wind part with two players at the premiere. The woodwinds included piccolo, 2flutes, 2 oboes, 2clarinets, and 2 bassoons. Brass was composed of 2 horns, 2 trumpets, and 3 trombones. The fourth movement was sung in soprano solo, alto solo, tenor solo, baritone solo, SATB choir voices. Percussions were also used and comprised of timpani, bass drum, triangle and cymbals. Finally, his composition was accompanied by strings that included violins, viola, cellos and double basses. Form Beethoven’s symphony was in four movements: allegro, scherzo, Adagio and recitative movements. He changed the common classical symphonies patterns by placing scherzo prior to slow movements, instead of the vice versa (Hopkins 76). The first movement was in the form of sonata, which was accompanied by a stormy mood. His inspiration was felt in the opening theme, when pianissimo was played over string tremolos, to resemble orchestra sound. The theme showed clarity and power that drove the entire movement. On the other hand, the introduction employed relationships, from mediant to tonic, which distorts the key until it is played in the lowest register by the bassoon. Scherzo, the second movement, resembles the first movement in the opening theme. Written three times, its punctuation sounds like it is in a quadruple time when played with meter speed Hopkins 127). This movement made Beethoven to face various criticisms for failing to abide by standard forms of his composition. This movement has an internal structure that is very elaborate, making it a complete sonata. The third movement comprises of a lyrical slow movement in a variation form that is loose. Each variation pair then progressively elaborates the melody and rhythm. The fourth movement is a