Music History Instructor Submission Date Part V-The Enlightenment and the Classical Era 4. Write an essay on the history of keyboard music during the Classic period. Who were the important composers, what kind of music did they write, how did keyboard music change during the period, which instruments rose in prominence and which ones declined in importance?…
The four famous composers of this period included Dunstable, Despres, Ockeghem, and Dufay. Following the beginning of tradition in the sixteenth century, many people who were interested in music readily associated themselves with the classical music leading to the abandonment of the model system of the harmonic music. Many music composers shifted from composing harmony music and started composing classical. Composers moved away from composing these traditional types of music, which had lasted for over three hundred years introducing a strong sensation in songs with a definite tonal key (Gangwere 256). This was also termed as a golden period since many masses, anthems, motets, and madrigals followed this new form of music. In addition, this high demand of music lead to the establishment of instrumental music especially keyboard music, which was in the form of fantasies, variation, and dance movements. Some of the note-composers who emerged during this period included Dowland, Byrd, Victoria, Lassus, Cardoso, and many others. During 11th century, one of the genius music composers Guido applied the concept of music to stringed instruments. His diatonic scale, which had eight full tones and seven intervals with two semitones, was the first keyboard to be in use. This type of keyboard had only twenty keys. There are no reliable historical sources showing the first person who applied the concept of the chromatic scale. Later on in 1548, Guiseppe Zarlino added the remaining two semitones to his keyboard. During the sixteenth century, almost every keyboard manufacturers used chromatic scale, which the same thing associated with the modern pianos. Since the development of keyboard, many amendments have been made to the chromatic keyboard to perfect its performance. In 1811, Dr. Krause constructed an improved keyboard whose semitones were of the same level, and all the keys had a uniform color. Later, another piano maker from Vienna constructed a keyboard in the form of concave. The aim of constructing concave-formed keyboard was to follow the learning of the keyboard players’ arm. This is evidence that, the modern keyboard has gone through many amendment, especially the concept of the keys layout. The layout of the whole and semi-tones has evolved over centuries (Gangwere 272). 5. Examine how Enlightenment philosophy and the spirit of capitalism influenced the music of the Classical period. The enlightenment age began in 17th through the 18th century. This was a cultural movement, which started first in Europe and later in the America. The main purpose of enlightenment age was to bring change to the society helping people abandon their traditional believes and cultural practices, and advancing their living standards through scientific measures. It promoted scientific knowledge, which brought intellectual change hence opposing traditional cultures like power abuses by churches and state. This idea of enlightenment had many impacts on culture, politics, and western government. Enlightenment philosophy had great impacts on art. It brought some emphasis on learning whereby arts and music became widespread especially among the middle class people. It also led to the establishment of many study areas where literature, philosophy, science, and expensive art ...
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