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Risk factors for OA includes the act of engaging in tedious manual labor or high-intensity sports activities, age, gender or being born as female, developmental dysplasia, obesity, ethnicity or race, genetic predisposition, inadequate exercise, socio-economic background, joint misalignment, long hours standing and lifting heavy weights (Sulsky et al., 2012; Swift, 2012; Kullie et al., 2011; Allen et al., 2010; Bolen et al., 2010; Lin et al., 2010; McDonough & Jette, 2010). The pathophysiology of OA is marked by a slow degenerative process of the “cartilage, bone and soft tissues that are integral to joints” followed by low-grade inflammation in the articular cartilage (Sulsky et al., 2012; McDonough & Jette, 2010, p. 388).
After conducting a statistical research study with regards to the health-related quality of life among the US adults with arthritis, Furner et al. (2011) found out that the adults with arthritis had worse health-related quality of life as compared to the adults without arthritis. In general, pain at the joints is common among patients with OA (Bolen et al., 2010). Other common signs of OA include difficulty in body movements, stiffness and loss of muscle tone, strength and stamina, poor sleep, fatigue, anxiety, social isolation, depression, financial difficulty, and loss of work (Swift, 2012; Axford et al., 2010, 2008; Hawker et al., 2010). ...