Immunology refers to study of molecules, cells organs and systems, which facilitate identification and disposal of foreign materials. Immunology commences as a component of microbiology; in fact, this is a study of infections illnesses to which the human body responds to have a significant role in establishment of immunology (WHO, 2012)…
Immunology commences as a component of microbiology; in fact, this is a study of infections illnesses to which the human body responds to have a significant role in establishment of immunology (WHO, 2012). Apparently, immunology entails a concept of germ theory, which is related to a disease contributing to the field of immunology. On the other hand, vaccination involves biological measures, which are derived from living organisms (WHO, 2012). In this case, these measures are aimed at enhancing immunity against disease, prevent diseases through prophylactic vaccines, or offer treatment for illnesses through therapeutic vaccines (Hanekom, 2005, 21). These vaccines are in liquid form, which is injected, orally administered or through intranasal routes. Vaccines entail disease causing microorganism or components, which are administered into the human body. 2. Outline three Countries considered high risk for diseases transmission and the approx % persons travelling to these Countries each year (using WHO). The economic conditions in developing countries makes a third of the population, which is approximately 1.3 billion to live on low daily incomes that is below the poverty line of one dollar (WHO, 2012). There are other problems involving children malnourishment; in fact a fifth of these children are not immunized after a period of one year. Furthermore, 30% of the world’s population suffers due to inaccessibility to essential treatment (WHO, 2012). Therefore, there are numerous people living below the poverty line and this leads to increased negligence towards dangerous infectious diseases, and due this reason some diseases have gained ground (Pashine, Valiante & Ulmer, 2005, 63). There are nations whose citizens are suffering significantly suffered from consequences of neglecting these diseases (Burton and Murray, 2011, 164). In addition, this problem is aggravated by increasing mass population movement over the years. Some of the countries considered to have a high risk for diseases transmission by WHO include counties in located along the yellow fever belt of Africa and South America. Source: World Health Organization (WHO) WHO (2012) argues that there has been increasing number of planes travelling to and from these places with airline passengers. For instance number of passengers travelling has increased from 2 million since 1950 to over 1.4 billion in the present days among counties in located along the yellow fever belt of Africa and South America (WHO, 2012). Therefore, this makes transmission of illnesses to be in a matter of hours. Numbers of air travel have increased, thereby leading to increased chances of people transporting diseases from continents from one country to the other in few hours. In this case, this poses a threat of deadly diseases to different countries. This has led to recommendations made by World Health Organization (WHO, 2012, 204), indicating that vaccinations are supposed to be administered routinely to infants. In fact, World Health Organization (WHO, 2012, 204) argues that infants, who live in these locations, should be vaccinated and other people who are planning to travel to these countries. These countries have been regarded to be in highly risk situation posed yellow fever due to is viral nature associated with haemorrhagic disease and increased fatality rate. On the other hand, the recognition of the implications of the public health has increasingly dwindled over the years. For instance, there were cases of Ebola reported in 1996, whereby health workers were infected by patients who had visited the country to seek medical services after an outbreak in Gabon. There are initiatives that have been established in South African government ...
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